(WIPO code: GH) (last revised January 2023)

by NTRAKWAH & CO., Accra

General Information


238,535 sq. km.


30.8 million (2021).



Official language



Ghanaian Cedi.

Main imports

Raw materials, capital equipment, tobacco and consumable food items.

Main exports

Cocoa, timber, gold, manganese ore, diamonds and bauxite. The discovery of oil in commercial quantities in the Western Region (offshore) was announced in 2007.

General Remarks

Administration: the sovereign state of Ghana is a multi-party democratic republic consisting of sixteen regions. There is a Parliament of Ghana in which legislative power is vested subject to the provisions of the 1992 Constitution of the country. There is an executive President of the Republic who is the Head of State and Head of Government and Commander in Chief of the Armed Forces of Ghana. Judicial power in Ghana is vested in the judiciary of which the Chief Justice is the head and accordingly no organ or agency of the executive or the legislature is given any final judicial power. Parliament and the seat of the central government as well as the Supreme Court are located in Accra, the capital of Ghana. The Court of Appeal is located in Kumasi, Cape Coast, Koforidua, Ho, Tamale and Accra.

Legislation: new legislation was enacted and published in 2003 (Patents Act, Geographical Indications Act, Industrial Designs Act), in 2004 (Trade Marks Act and Layout Designs (Topographies) of Integrated Circuits Act), and in 2014 (Trademarks (Amendment) Act). The required implementing regulations of all these laws are yet to be issued.

The Trade Marks Act has kept in force, until repealed, the Regulations made under the previous (1965) Act, and the Patents Act has kept in force, until repealed, the Regulations under the previous (1992) Law. The Industrial Designs Act has kept in force subsidiary legislation made under The United Kingdom Designs (Protection) Ordinance and the Textile Designs (Regulations) Decree, 1973.