(WIPO code: RU) (last revised June 2023)


General Information


17,098,246 sq. km.


141,698,923 (2023).


Moscow, with 12.680 million inhabitants (2023).


Russian (official).


Rouble (RUB).

General Remarks

Until the end of 1991, the Russian Federation was a part of the USSR, a country with a planned economy based on socialist (Marxist-Leninist) organization.

The Russian Federation continues radical economic reforms, with most of its industry being privately owned. The import largely comprises consumer goods. The major export items are raw materials and machinery. The country, which is rich in vital natural resources and has a great economic potential, became a WTO member on August 22, 2012. The Russian Federation remains a member notwithstanding the economic sanctions of its members and is ready to continue to be a stable supplier for those who agreed to equal partnership.

Industrial property protection in the territory of Crimea: although according to Ukrainian legislation, inventions, utility models, industrial designs, trademarks, service marks and appellations of origin (IP rights) registered in Ukraine remain valid on the territory of Crimea, as of March 18, 2014 de facto it is no longer possible to enforce them. As of this date, IP rights registered in the Russian Federation extend to the territory of Crimea and are enforceable there under Russian legislation. Therefore, in case of a continued business activity in Crimea and ownership of an IP right registered in Ukraine but not in the Russian Federation, it is recommended to obtain registration for such IP right in the Russian Federation.

Parallel import: is allowed by the Decree of the Government of the Russian Federation N 506 as of March 29, 2022, valid since March 30, 2022, in respect of the goods, that have no longer been imported into the Russian Federation according to the suspension of companies' activity in Russia, but are recognized of a high interest and cannot fully meet the needs of industrial enterprises and the consumers. The parallel import is allowed only regarding the original goods that have legally entered the market and is applied only to the objects indicated on the list issued by the Ministry of Industry and Trade, valid since May 7, 2022, amended as of October 22, 2022. If a company continues fully performing its activity in the Russian Federation but its products are on the list, the Ministry of Industry and Trade will exclude them from the list based on the company's demand.