(WIPO code: PH) (last revised April 2023)


General Information


About 7,107 islands with an area of 300,000 sq. km.


114.5 million (2022).

Principal cities

Manila (capital and chief port), Makati (business center), Quezon City, Pasig, Taguig, Parañaque and Caloocan, comprised, inter alia, within a metropolitan center called Metro Manila.


Filipino, English, Spanish, Chinese and eight major local dialects.


The Filipinos are predominantly Roman Catholic (86%), the rest being Protestant born again Christians, and Muslim.




Three main island groups: Luzon, Visayas and Mindanao, located in the heart of Southeast Asia, surrounded by the Pacific Ocean on the east, the Celebes (sulawesi) Sea on the south, the South China Sea on the west, and in the north by the Bashi Channel.

Major industries

Agriculture, shipbuilding and repair, automotive, aerospace, electronics, mining and extraction, offshoring and outsourcing, and tourism.

Principal imports

(September 2021): electronic products (11.5%), industrial machinery and equipment (12.6%), telecommunications equipment and electrical machinery (1.7%), iron and steel (67.1%), cereals and cereal preparations (13.9%), and transport equipment (20.5%).

Principal exports

(September 2021): electronic products (5.4%), other manufactures 7.1%, machinery and transport equipment (-27%), and ignition wiring set and other wiring sets used in vehicles, aircrafts and ships (-1.7%).

Export markets

(September 2021): Japan (14%), United States (17.5%), Peoples Republic of China (15.7%), Hong Kong (13.7%), and Singapore (6%).

General Remarks

The country has adopted progressive legislation to attract investments in certain key areas. Emphasis has likewise been placed on the liberalization of investment, trade and foreign exchange policies, the privatization of government corporations and the development of regional industrial centers and export processing zones.

Rice is the staple native food cereal. Other significant crops are coconut, corn, sugar and bananas.

The Philippines possess large but relatively undeveloped mineral resources. It is among the world’s top producers of gold, copper and chromite. The Philippines geothermal reserves rank second in the world. Oil has also been discovered.

On January 1, 1998, the present Intellectual Property Code of the Philippines, which consolidates all intellectual property laws in the Philippines, including those governing technology transfer agreements, became effective. On August 21, 2001, President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo signed into law Republic Act No. 9150, otherwise known as An Act Providing for the Protection of Layout Designs (Topographies) of Integrated Circuits, Amending for the Purpose Certain Sections of Republic Act No. 8293. On June 7, 2002, President Arroyo signed into law Republic Act No. 9168, otherwise known as an Act to Provide Protection to Plant Varieties, Establishing a National Plant Variety Protection Board and For Other Purposes. On February 10, 2004, the Optical Media Law or Republic Act No. 9329 was signed into law. As a result, the intellectual property laws have been significantly amended and strengthened to protect intellectual property rights.


Statistics (2022) Filed Granted
Patents 4,030 1,331
Utility models 1,593 889
Trademarks 39,616 33,246
Industrial designs 1,264 689