(WIPO code: IT) (last revised January 2023)

by JACOBACCI & PARTNERS, Patent Agents – Torino, Milano, Roma, Padova, Bergamo, Brescia

General Information


302,073 sq. km.


58.9 million (estimated January 2022).


Rome (city), with about 2.873 million inhabitants.




Euro (EUR).


(2021): 423 billion euros.


(2021): 448 billion euros.

Principal imports

(2021) (in million U.S. dollars): crude petroleum ($35.1B), cars ($29.8B), packaged medicaments ($17.4B), petroleum gas ($15.8B), refined petroleum ($9.11B), broadcasting equipment ($8.06B), gold ($5.08B).

Principal exports

(2021) (in million U.S. dollars): packaged medicaments ($25B), cars ($15.4B), vehicle parts ($14.3B), refined petroleum ($13.9B), valves ($8.21B), leather footwear ($7.7) jewelry ($7.32B), wine ($7.25B).

Most important agricultural and industrial products

Wheat, maize, rye, barley, oats, rice, fruit, chestnuts, dried fruit, vegetables, olive oil, flowers, eggs, cheese, wine, spirits, macaroni, tomato sauce, hemp, silk, artificial fibers, stockings, felt and straw hats, alabaster, marble, quicksilver, aluminium, natural gas, methane gas, iron, manganese, lead, zinc, tin, magnesium, sulphur, iodine, kaolin, motorcycles, bicycles, motorcars, load carrying vehicles and other land vehicles, ships, aircraft, agricultural machines, typewriters and calculating machines, data processing apparatuses and systems, telecommunication systems, cement, glass, sulphuric acid, nitric acid, hydrochloric acid, citric acid, sodium borate, dyes, rubber articles, buttons, petrochemicals, pharmaceuticals, biomedical products.

General Remarks

Italy has rapidly changed from a pre-eminently agricultural country to an industrialized one. Of the entire area, 92% is productive, the remaining 8% being the unproductive regions, mainly in the higher mountains.

The production of machines is steadily growing. Particular attention is being paid to attaining higher productivity in industry.