(WIPO code: EC) (last revised March 2023)

by ROMERO ARTETA PONCE, Attorneys-at-Law, Quito – Mr. Gustavo Romero / Ms. Carolina Guerrero

General Information


276,840 sq. km.


18,092,316 (estimated December 2022).




Spanish (90% of population), Quichua.


Roman Catholic (95%).


U.S. dollar (USD).


Transport equipment, vehicles, machinery, chemicals and petroleum.


Petrochemicals, fish, timber, petroleum and agricultural products.

General Remarks

Ecuador is in the northwest part of South America, bordering the Pacific Ocean at the Equator, between Colombia and Peru.

The Andean Agreement was adapted as a means to harmonize and take advantage of similar legislation (as well as economic and social policies) of participating countries (Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador and Peru) in the area of Intellectual Property Law.

Decision 486 of the Cartagena Agreement, entitled Common Industrial Property Regulations, replacing Decision 344, was adopted by Ecuador in September 2000. This Decision regulates patents, trade and service marks in the country.

The IP legislation that is in force is "CODIGO ORGANICO DE LA ECONOMIA SOCIAL DE LOS CONOCIMIENTOS, CREATIVIDAD E INNOVACIÓN" (Organic Code of the Social Economy of Knowledge, Creativity and Innovation), which is in force since December 2016. This Law replaced the IP Law which was in force since 1998. The new Law gives additional intellectual property protection not included in the Andean or Cartagena Agreements. It also regulates disloyal competition, undisclosed information, industrial and commercial espionage, ancestral knowledge, abuse of confidence as well as trademarks, patents and copyrights.